In the transport sector, by light-weighting vehicles from electric cars to planes to make them more energy efficient while maintaining their strength and safety. Aluminium is also an important component in mass transit systems, displacing personal transport.
In the construction sector, improving the energy performance of buildings, particularly windows, curtain walls and facades. Increased use of aluminium also means more of a building can be recycled on demolition, reducing the requirement to make new material.
In the energy sector, as a key component of renewable energy technologies (especially solar photovoltaics and wind), energy storage, and the expanded electricity transmission grids required for electrification to displace hydrocarbons.
In the packaging sector, both as highly efficient packaging that uses very little material to provide the barrier to moisture and contamination required, and as a recyclable material to displace single-use plastics.